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Two Approaches to Ethics – Egoism and Altruism

Two Approaches to Ethics – Egoism and Altruism

Each day we are required to make a variety of moral decisions. The way we analyse different options is often based on intuition shaped by experience, family backgrounds, culture, and faith traditions.  For Christians, ethics is part of our commitment to follow Jesus into a broken world. We live in an age in which the lives of most Christians are virtually indistinguishable from those of others in our broader culture. Accordingly, a focus on ethics is important if we wish to establish a vibrant witness in our communities.

An exposure to ethical theories can deepen our practice of Christian discipleship. In the following remarks I wish to concentrate on egoism and altruism as two opposing approaches to moral dilemmas. It is important to give attention to these two streams because the former is particularly prevalent in our social and political context. The church in North America has largely lost the active altruist ethic that made its witness compelling in the first two centuries (Rodney Stark). Additionally, I venture to propose that each of us struggles to live in the tension between egoism and altruism in our personal lives.

The Egoist Approach to Ethics:

The egoist approach is based on the criteria of self-interest, personal benefit, and happiness. Egoists evaluate each moral decision on the basis of advantage for self, family, and social group. Ethical egoists maintain that people are responsible for their own happiness and well-being. Consequently, individuals bear the moral obligation to look out for themselves. We are fully justified placing self-interest above the needs of others. People that require external assistance to maintain themselves are characterized as weak and dependent. Ethical egoists generally disdain welfare, food banks, and socialized medical programs. They are likely to endorse unrestricted capitalism believing that this economic system rewards those that work with diligence and creativity. They have faith in Adam Smith’s invisible hand of capitalism to guide individuals and nations.  They are more likely to speak about individual than collective rights. They recognize the need for enforcement agents to protect from others in society that break the law for reasons of personal advantage and profit.

 

It is important to note that the egoist approach to ethics does not invariably produce people that lack moral restraint and oppose all forms of cooperative action. The ethical egoist understands that long-term goals of family, home, career and financial security require sacrifice and effort. Furthermore, there can be personal benefits to community organization and taxes to support certain government services. For example, the payment of taxes for the supply of safe water is valuable for each tax payer. Speed limits in neighborhood school zones restrict personal freedom but protect their children. It is more difficult to make a compelling case for financial support to improve the quality of education in marginal zones of a city because the benefit is further removed. Accordingly, the egoist willingly enters into certain social contracts provided that there is personal benefit and all people give up similar freedoms. These social contracts are not rooted in motivations of concern for others. The criterion is always a sense of self-interest.

The important point to note is that ethical egoism proposes that people should act consistently with motives of self-interest and personal happiness. This approach to moral dilemmas is foundational for this ethical current. Ethical egoists argue that they are morally responsible because they take responsibility for themselves and their families, obey the law, and do not depend on the state.

The Altruist Approach to Ethics

The altruist stream of ethics, in contrast, works with the moral criterion of the common good or the well-being of others. This approach to ethics goes so far as to place a value on personal sacrifice for the sake of others. Personal advantage and happiness are less important than the well-being of diverse people in the community.

I sometimes wonder if the altruist approach to ethics finds some nourishment in collectivist rather than individualist cultures. Let me give an example. A prolonged drought produced a famine in southeastern Kenya in 2006. Canadian Baptists ran a year-long project of food assistance with the help of the Canadian Foodgrains Bank. 42,000 people benefited from monthly supplies of beans, rice, cooking oil, and other necessities. The beneficiaries had been identified as severely food insecure and, therefore, vulnerable to starvation. Each beneficiary was given a ration card in order to make sure that we targeted needy families. During the program, aid workers reported that most people immediately shared their food supplies with others in the community.  Evidently, there was some sort of a moral issue about receiving a benefit without giving to others. Their actions clearly ran counter to their personal interest in a time of famine. Altruism trumped egoism.

The ethical altruist approach should not be characterized as “a bleeding heart” orientation to morality. Few altruists eat beans and rice each day so that they can send financial donations to feed the hungry. However, their analysis of ethical problems consistently poses the fundamental question of the common good of the community and the world. Ethical altruists are suspicious about policies and actions that benefit some people at the cost of others. There will be particular concern when a minority profits while the majority are excluded. Altruists are prepared to make decisions for the benefit of others when it is not in their best interest. One might consider the case of Warren Buffett, an respected American investor and multi-millionaire. He has argued that it is morally unacceptable that rich people like himself pay less in federal taxes, as a proportion of total income, than people in the middle class. He has gone so far as to propose a new level of tax on the wealthy. This position clearly expresses an altruistic ethic that opposes tax policies that personally benefit him and his family.

 

Analysis

Both ethical streams, the egoist and the altruist, are found in the Christian scriptures. Allow me to give a further example regarding food. Paul responded to an ethical dilemma in 2 Thessalonians 3.3-13. A group in the Christian community had given up work and expected to live from the handouts of others in the congregation. Paul first points to his own example of manual labor to pay his own way. He then lays down the following principle: Anyone unwilling to work cannot depend on the generosity of the community. This could be considered an application of ethical egoism – individuals bear the responsibility for their own well-being. The apostle faced a different moral issue when a famine struck Palestine. The marginalized Christian community in Jerusalem was particularly vulnerable to hunger. Paul organized a collection of funds from the churches in Asia Minor and Greece to provide relief. Three ethical principles are particularly noteworthy in 2 Corinthians 8-9.

  1. Each person was to participate in this altruistic intervention according to their means. No one was exempt.
  2. The model for generosity was the altruism of the Lord Jesus Christ who, being rich, chose to become poor so that we might be rich.
  3. The goal of altruism is some sort of a fair balance between those that suffer from poverty and those that live in security.

 

I propose that these two examples help us to see that people of faith always live in the tension between ethical egoism and altruism. The problem is that egoism is more prevalent than altruism. The individualism and consumerism of western societies throws cold water on the ideals of self-sacrifice for the common good.

I would like to conclude with a few additional points of reflection:

  • We will always live with the tension of ethical egoism and altruism.
  • A social world in which morality is based on personal advantage would require you to protect yourself in every relationship and encounter with other people.
  • The law of the jungle inevitably creates losers as well as winners. A compounding problems is that both wealth and poverty often are passed on to other generations unless there is some form of equalization of opportunity.
  • Humans have a tendency toward self-deception. It is a challenge to assess our own motivations and even more difficult to discern the motives of others. Ethical egoists may present themselves as altruists in order to gain an advantage, build an image, or advance in their career. Each of us needs to engage in regular gut-checks to recognize and purify our motives. Public figures must be judged by their actions rather than their words.
  • The road of ethical egoism does not guarantee well-being and happiness. The current level of consumer debt in Canada and the USA illustrates that egoists will compromise the future because of weakness of will and lack of knowledge. Paradoxically, personal satisfaction is often the by-product of a life of service to others.
  • Our response to the environmental crisis is dampened by the current of ethical egoism that mitigates against personal sacrifice for the collective good. As a result, it is convenient to question the science of global climate change.
  • Politicians and preachers generally appeal to our inherent egoism by emphasizing personal advantages of their platforms or religion. There is an overwhelming silence about the virtue of sacrifice for the common good and, in the case of the discourse of pastors, for the rule of God.

I propose that the witness of Christians will be strengthened by a renewed emphasis on an altruistic approach to ethics based on our reading of the New Testament and Hebrew prophets.

 

The author wishes to acknowledge his debt to Barbara MacKinnon and Andrew Fiala, Ethics Theory and Contemporary Issues (2015)

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Spiritual Disciplines of Boards and Committees

Spiritual Disciplines of Boards and Committees

Spiritual practices can nurture groups as well as individual followers of Jesus. However, when it comes to boards and committees, it often seems that “the devotional moment” is a formality or a distraction before we get down to the real work. Accordingly, we may rush through a reflection and prayer with a certain impatience waiting for the time when we can deal with the real reason that we are gathered.

I submit that too often the inadequate content of the quiet period before God is to blame for the feeling that we are spinning our wheels before dealing with the issues of the day. The words and prayers may feel disengaged from the reality of the challenges we face and the emotions of our hearts. And so we waste an opportunity to collectively stand before the Lord, to listen, to confess our sins and limitations, to ask for a renewed vision, and to offer our lives in service. We miss the chance to pray for one another and for those whose lives our touched through our work. We fail to invite the Spirit to guide and direct our motivations, our deliberations, decisions, and actions.

This week I was privileged to participate as an observer in a board meeting with 30 representatives of fifteen Christian denominations. At least 25 other people were present drawn by the common concern for hungry people in the world. The board members and other interested individuals were connected in one way or another with the Canadian Foodgrains Bank. The group members represented diverse professional backgrounds, a common faith commitment, and a shared passion for vulnerable people in areas such as South Sudan, Yemen, Somalia, Syria, and Northern Nigeria.

The official agenda had urgent matters for discussion and decision. Board members had been given over 250 pages of reports and other documents. Budgets. Auditors Statements. Convergent Level 3 Emergencies. Rick Factors. Local Capacities. Field Reports. Global climate change. Conflict zones. Gender and Development. Changing government policies. Public opinion surveys. Fundraising and Communication options. People in the room were aware that human lives were at stake. Two days of meetings did not seem like enough time.

I was struck by the fact that over one hour was given to Biblical reflection and prayer before the items on the agenda began to be considered. James Astleford, an Adventist leader, drew attention to a Biblical passage from the Hebrew Bible. In 2 Kings 6 soldiers from a foreign army are captured and brought into Jerusalem. The ruling monarch is keen to kill them as an example of what will happen to the nation’s enemies. However, the prophet Elisha demands that they be invited to a banquet and then sent home to their families. These actions lead to a time of peace. Astleford encouraged the group to consider that generosity with food and nutrition is a way of building peace without the violence of bombs and armies. Feeding the hungry is an alternative foreign policy of the church.

Jim Cornelius, executive director of the Foodgrains Bank, used his report to lead us in a reflection of Jesus’ cry from the cross: “My God, my God, why have your forsaken me?” He reminded the room that millions of hungry and desperate people today are screaming similar words to God and to the world. They feel forsaken and abandoned. Cornelius noted that the spirit of our age is to withdraw into the safety of baseball scores, barbeques, and times at the pool. The cross of Jesus stands before us as a symbol of a radical and sacrificial love of the world.

 

The vocation of caring for hungry people exposes the organizational limitations and vulnerabilities of each of the fifteen denominations of the Foodgrains Bank. There were hard discussions ahead. Astleford and Cornelius brought us together before God and established a context in which our business could be considered.

Other groups have their own unique mission and purpose in the world. I think of local congregational councils, youth groups, urban ministries, refugee organizations, and seminary boards.  Together they bear witness to the wide nature of God’s love and grace among those who feel wounded and abandoned. Our moments of reflection and prayer before moving into the agenda of a meeting have the potential to create a context in which God can speak to our hearts and minds. We dare not waste them.

Here are a few quick suggestions:

  1. Do not rotate the leadership of the opening reflection and prayer. Choose someone who will have a word from the Lord.
  2. Keep it real. The “devotional moment” should capture something of the agenda, the mission, and the people who are served. The challenges ahead should be brought into the content of the reflection and prayer.
  3. Invite God’s Spirit to speak to each participant and to guide the discussion. Later, do not be hesitant to stop at certain point in the agenda and offer the problems and challenges to the Lord.
  4. Keep it tight. Do not waste the time of others with stories and comments that are unrelated to the task ahead. Astleford and Cornelius commanded the moment because their words and prayer were related to the mission of the people gathered in the room. There were neither jokes nor cute tales.

I find that many meetings drain my energy and passion. The Canadian Foodgrains Bank Board Meeting provided a setting for God to speak to the room in a way the renewed our faith and vision.

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Famine or Feast

Famine or Feast

We have become complacent with global hunger. This was the conclusion of Amartya Sen, Nobel prize winning economist and Cambridge scholar. Sen wondered how the world seemed to have an easy tolerance for hunger.

 

Last week I spoke on global hunger at an event called Famine or Feast in Vancouver. I used four numbers as a means to gain insight into hunger and under nutrition in our world.

 

Nine: One in nine people in the world is hungry. These people have gone 12 months with insufficient daily kilocalories for even a sedentary lifestyle. There is also the factor of hidden hunger. Two billion people suffer from a serious lack of micro nutrients like Vitamin D. In Canada, over 800 thousand people a month depend on food banks.

 

Seventy: Seventy percent of hungry people, men, women, and children, live in rural areas where food is produced. These people are poor. Some are landless. They feel the impact of climate change in tropical and semi tropical countries.

 

Eighty: Eighty percent of the produce consumed in Africa and Asia comes from small farms. Farmers with small landholdings play a critical role in feeding the world’s expanding population.

 

Twenty-five: There has been a twenty-five year decline in development assistance to agriculture. This is surprising because the World Bank has shown that assistance to agriculture has the greatest impact on the economies of developing countries. Here in Canada, our government has reduced foreign aid to agriculture by 25% since 2010-2011.

 

Our scriptural tradition addresses hunger and food in deep ways. Jesus called himself the bread of life in John’s Gospel. We nourish our lives and find strength for our journeys through faith in him. Jesus pronounced a blessing on those that hunger and thirst for righteousness. Our longings for mercy, justice, and righteousness begin to find their fulfillment as we follow Jesus into a broken world of violence and disparity. Jesus called on his followers to share their tables with the poor. He was concerned for people that were hungry and isolated in their communities. He wanted his disciples to take action on their behalf.

 

One action we can take is to advocate to our governments for greater assistance to farmers with small landholdings in the global south. This can be a prophetic act of speaking for the poor. I recommend two websites for further information:

www.unbendthetrend.ca

www.foodgrainsbank.ca

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